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约书亚记14章思想
2023-07-25 11:46:44
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约书亚记14章: ♥迦勒的信心如太阳般发出耀眼的光芒。他靠着以神为中心的信心,终于占领迦南而带来了和平。 他的体力足以去征服应许给他的地业
♥基列亚巴,是四(人)的城的意思。迦勒为信徒的楷模,倚靠神的应许而刚强行事(来十一章)。民数记中,迦勒不与百姓同流合污,单单因着神的应许,便相信以色列人可以承受迦南地。虽然由于其他人的不信,这件事当时并没有成就,迦勒却没有丢弃神的子民。他仍然和他们在一起,用忍耐忠心等候应许的实现(哈二3~4)。这事在迦勒老年时终于实现了。虽然他年岁已高,亚衲族人又十分强盛,但他的信心却丝毫不动摇。他说话行事时的信心,乃是可以移山的信心(太十七20;路十七7)。这样,他终于得着了产业,证实了神的赐福。如果“基尼洗族”一词暗示迦勒的祖先原本不是以色列人(他入了犹大族;民十三6)表明外族人亦能加入神子民的行列中,正如喇合与基遍人一样:弗二11~13)。
♥亚巴”是出于赫文“基列亚巴”的意思是“立约之友的地”。南方(=犹大)
《希伯来文翻译》
〔原文字义〕「以利亚撒」神已帮助;「嫩」鱼,后裔;「约书亚」耶和华是拯救。
『祭司以利亚撒』是亚伦第三子,继承亚伦作大祭司(民二十六1);分地为业之人的名字,是祭司以利亚撒和嫩的儿子约书亚」(民三十四17),亚伦的接班人「祭司以利亚撒」代表神的恩典,摩西的接班人「约书亚」代表神的权柄。「祭司以利亚撒和嫩的儿子约书亚」主持分地为业,表明以色列人在迦南承受产业的过程,完全是根据神的恩典和权柄。将来我们「与众圣徒在光明中同得基业」(西一12),也完全是根据「慈悲忠信的大祭司」(来二17)和万王之王(提前六15)主耶稣基督的恩典和权柄。
「摩西」被拉的;「阄」抽签用的小卵石。
♥「拈阄」是主动地把事情交在「耶和华面前」(十八10),接受神的权柄和管理。神吩咐百姓用「拈阄」(民三十四13)的方法来承受产业,表明神才是全地真正的主人;百姓能得着这地,并非因为自己的努力配得,而是根据神的应许和恩典;百姓只有遵行神的诫命,神才会「照祂向你列祖所起的誓,扩张你的境界,将所应许赐你列祖的地全然给你」(申九8)。
「约但」下降;「利未」连结于。
「约瑟」耶和华已增添;「玛拿西」导致遗忘;「以法莲」两堆灰烬,我将获双倍果子。
以色列」神胜过。
「犹大」赞美的;「吉甲」滚动,轮;「基尼洗」巢被洒;「耶孚尼」他将被面对;「迦勒」有才能的,勇敢,全心的;「加低斯巴尼亚」神圣的。
♥85岁的老年人,惩罚居住在希伯仑险峻山地的亚衲族人。迦勒的信心没有动摇,他所承受的地上虽仍有巨人,他却深信耶和华必助他得胜。我们应当像迦勒一样对神忠心,不仅在起步时与祂同行,乃要整个一生始终如一;我们切不可躺在过去的成就或名誉上。
「窥探」四处探勘,刺探。
『按着心意回报』意指将心里所想的据实报告。
♥迦勒毫无畏惧,也不讨好人,看到什么就如实报告,说自己相信神的大能会胜过这些巨人。现在他已经八十五岁了,仍愿意去进攻这些可怕的居民(书十五14)。
♥老当益壮,四十年如一日。他对神的应许,充满信心,更相信那是不会落空的。神的应许在成就前,他继续仰望,这是他生命的原动力,满有生存的意志。今日你靠甚么活着?是你所拥有的,抑或是神的应许,神的话呢?神的应许和话语是永不落空的;从迦勒对神话语的信靠,实在生发无穷的力量,这是他的生存意志的基础。
「消化」融化,分解;「专心」充满;「跟从」在…之后。
♥使百姓的心消化』意指使众人心生惧怕并丧胆;『专心跟从...神』意指全心全意顺服神的旨意。
♥迦勒并不是因陷入英雄主义或骄傲而自吹自擂,而只是表达了信实地顺服神旨意者的心志(林前一31;四16)。就像一个旅行者,愿意追随他的向导,步步紧跟,不敢懈怠。
♥『脚所踏之地』意指所征服的地方。存活」活着,有生命。他的生活就是信心的见证。他在凡事上接受神的安排而不固执己见。神能为完全顺从祂的人施行大事。
「强壮」强壮,坚固;「力量」力量,能力。
『争战』指上战场打仗;『出入』指在家日常生活;『力量』指体力和精力。
凡等候主的,如鹰返老还童。
♥「或者耶和华与我同在,我就把他们赶出去。」他并不是有片刻丝毫的怀疑。他只知道八十年专心跟从神,神决不在紧要关头放弃他。他心灵的谦卑,自感配不上神的恩典。最强的人往往看自己好似虫一样,软弱不堪。「我的恩典是够你用的,我的能力在软弱人的身上显得完全」(林后十二9)。

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    2023-07-26 13:23:25

    Civilizational Aspect of the Islamic Shari'ah


         When the Almighty Allah created Adam, He made one of the duties assigned to him “the development of the earth.” This is clear from the statement of Allah to His Angels as the Qur'an reports, "[Remember] when your Lord said to the angels, 'I am going to place a  Khalifah  (vicegerent) successive authority on earth” (Qur'an, 2: 30) Ibn 'Ashour comments, “The word  Khalifah  in its figurative meaning refers to someone who shoulders a responsibility entrusted to him by a higher authority. So the meaning is, 'We are creating an authority to act according to our Command." [1]

    Though we agree that the key purpose of creating man is to worship Allah as it is clear from Allah's saying, “I created jinn and mankind only to worship Me,” (Qur'an, 51: 56), it cannot be neglected that the creation of Adam had another key purpose. The Almighty Allah said, “Worship Allah. You have no god other than Him. It was He Who brought you into being from the earth and assigned you to develop it.” (Qur'an, 11 : 61) Thus, humans are created to achieve prosperity for this land, and this was why Allah taught Adam the names of everything.

    In light of this idea, it is logical that the Qur'an criticizes the corruption caused in land by man as Allah says, “Corruption has appeared throughout the land and sea by [reason of] what the hands of people have earned.” ( Qur'an, 30: 41) Al-Qurtubi comments, “Scholars differed in identifying the meanings of “corruption”. It is said that corruption refers to drought, scarcity of plants, and lack of blessing. It is also said that corruption refers to to economic difficulties. Some said that corruption means sins, plundering and doing injustice.”

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    However it might be more logical to widen the indication of the word corruption to cover all of its sorts, not the corruption referring only to sins and disobedience to Allah in its traditional religious meaning. Al-Miliji, comments, “The meaning of corruption in The Qur'anic usage is not confined to its common usage for disobedience according to Shari'ah perspective, which includes drinking alcohol, adultery, stealing, bad behaviors, etc. In fact, the meaning presented in the Qur'an is much wider. [2]  Ibn Ashour states, "Corruption means the evil circumstances. Using the definite article  Al  (the) may indicate that it is a generic noun to cover all forms of corruption in land and sea." [ 3]

    Thus, it can be logically concluded that Islam aims at achieving the wellbeing of humanity or, in another words, to achieve civilization. This is the Islamic vision of the universe that seeks to worship Allah alone, promote morality and achieve ‘umran (development/prosperity) in the earth. This duty that Islam commands Muslims to carry out can only be achieved through presenting Islam in its complete and comprehensive meaning. It was the mission that Companions shouldered and could convey until the early Muslim generations were able to create civilization within a short period of time.

    Thus, achieving human wellbeing is an objective of the Islamic Sharī‘ah, and as long as this is an objective of the Sharī‘ah, it must be presented and made clear in the Da‘wah discourse. This is the Jihad of our modern time. It is clear from the statements of the Prophet (PBUH) that Jihad can be undertaken through actions or statements as stated in the Hadith that reads, “Practice Jihad against the disbelievers with your hands, your properties and your tongues.”[4] Jihad with hands i.e. war has its conditions and circumstances.[5] However, the main means of conveying Islam is through speech as Allah said, “Call to the path of your Lord with wisdom and good admonition.” (Qur’an, 16: 125)

    With this in mind, Muslims need to realize and understand the civilizational aspects of the religious teachings and rulings of Islam. Such wide approach in reading the texts of Islam guarantees presenting Islam in its comprehensive form and helps Muslims, and non-Muslims, to realize the civilizational dimension of Islam. The following are just examples of this attitude.

    Preservation of the Environment

    Ibn Majah and Ahmad reported that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) passed by Sa‘d when the latter was performing ablution. He (PBUH) said, “What is this extravagance?” Sa‘d replied, “Can there be any extravagance in ablution?” the Messenger of Allah said: “Yes, even if you are on the bank of a flowing river.”[6] This Hadith is usually quoted to prove the prohibition of consuming extra water in making ablution. However, it must be understood from this Hadith that a Muslim should not be extravagant in using water for any purpose. This meaning also can be broadened to be applied to preserving all natural resources of the environment. Al-Najjar comments, “Water in this context is just an example for environmental resources in general. The consumption of these resources must be rationalized whether these resources are abundant or not and whether they are renewable or not.”[7]

    Encouraging Development

    The Muslim world suffers a state of backwardness, and it is necessary for the religious discourse to showcase how the Shari‘ah encourages and calls for development to prove that Islam came not only for calling people to perform spiritual acts of worship. Rather, true Islam achieves balance between the affairs of this world and the Hereafter. Many Ahadith may be used to encourage this value of development, while –apparently speaking- they could be used only for deducing fiqhi rulings.

    Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah narrated that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “Whoever revives a barren land, then it is for him.”[8] This Hadith has its fiqhi dimension, but it can also be understood as a call for encouraging development. This meaning is also supported by the Hadith narrated by Anas that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “If the Final Hour comes while you have a palm-cutting in your hands and it is possible to plant it before the Hour begins, you should plant it.”[9] Though the Hadith speaks about the end of this world life, it encourages Muslims to do whatever possible for them at this moment to develop the earth. Thus, development is meant for itself, not only for serving a coming generation.

    2023-07-25 11:48:04

    「亚衲」颈;「宽大」巨大的;「坚固」筑堡垒,使难以进入。
    『这山地』指犹大山地,出名的城市有希伯仑和底璧,附近一带的山地居住着亚衲族人,被以色列人视为难以克服的地区,迦勒自动请缨前去讨伐;『亚衲族人』指身量高大的巨人族(民十三32~33);『你也曾听见了』指听见神的应许。
    ♥ 「或者耶和华照祂所应许的与我同在,我就把他们赶出去」有神同在就无敌不克,无坚不破。
    ♥以色列的胜败首先取决于神是否同在,而不是取决于肉身的力量,或超人的战略战术,或良好的兵器。
    「祝福」祝福,屈膝;「希伯仑」联合。
    『将希伯仑给他』(1)神的应许和拈阄两者都是神的旨意;(2)其他各支派可能都畏惧亚衲族人,所以乐观其成。直到今日」日子,一段时间。『今日』指《约书亚记》书成之日。
    ♥我们足能得胜!」这是每一个全心信靠神的人必有的宣告。因他信神一切的应许,无一不可靠。
    ♥ 我们立刻上去得那地罢!」迦勒对他的神,是没有一点怀疑的。真实的信心,绝不迟慢耽延。凡承认神的话语是信实可靠者,他不但竭力遵行神的命令,并且也必立刻上去。
    「基列亚巴」伟人的城;「亚巴」伟人,四,巴力的力量;「最尊大」巨大的;「太平」平静,未受干扰的。 ♥『希伯仑』指此城最初出现于圣经中的名字(创十三18);『基列亚巴』指亚衲族始祖亚巴(书十五13)占据此城时所起的名字,迦勒取得后又改回叫希伯仑。
    !迦勒扫平犹大山地之后,有一段时期,迦南地再也没有大规模的战争了。
    激励我们将神的恩赐「再如火挑旺起来」(提后一6),凭信心支取基督里「一切的丰盛」(西二9~10)。
    ♥ 希伯仑」意思是「立约之地」:胆怯懒惰的人,看为不可攻不能克的城,会被那里的居民抓去吃掉;
    有信心的人看法不同,倚赖信实的神,祂与先祖立约,老迦勒作了许多年轻人不肯作不敢作不能作的事,攻克了基列亚巴城,取消了亚巴的名,改名为「立约之地」。从前信心之父亚伯拉罕曾住在那里,现在成了迦勒的产业;因为他信靠那同一位神,有亚伯拉罕的信心。

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