生物书没有告诉你一个有关始祖鸟的重大秘密!
2022-02-26 09:44:47
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  生物书没有告诉你一个有关始祖鸟的重大秘密!(重发)
原创 Steven 创造科学 2022-02-26 07:00
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  只要翻开初中生物课本,你都会看到一只如乌鸦般大小的鸟,名叫始祖鸟。自然界中鸟的种类成千上万,生物书没有选择常见的麻雀,也没有选择凶猛的老鹰,而就选择了始祖鸟,难道这鸟有什么特殊身份?
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【生物书中的始祖鸟】

进化论的故事说,一种生物可以通过漫长的进化,最终变成另一种生物。如果这种缓慢渐进的过程是真实的话,那么两种生物之间肯定存在某种中间过渡物种。比如某种生物“AAA”会先进化成“AAB”,再进化成“ABB”,最后变成“BBB”。而“AAB”和“ABB”就是所谓中间过渡物种。

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【进化论者认为鸟类与爬行动物之间存在中间过渡物种】
进化论称鸟类是从不会飞的恐龙进化而来的,而上面提到的那只始祖鸟据说是恐龙与鸟类之间的中间过渡物种。
难道这只鸟有什么特别之处,能被视为两大类动物之间的过渡物种?打开书本,上面对始祖鸟的描述是这样的:
“始祖鸟的大小和乌鸦差不多,被覆羽毛,它具有和鸟翅膀一样的前肢,但前肢的末端还有指,指的末端有爪,它的嘴里有牙齿。也就是说,它的身体结构和爬行动物有相同之处,又和鸟类有相同之处。”

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【始祖鸟想象图】
解密始祖鸟的身体构造
那始祖鸟到底是不是中间过渡物种呢?我们从它的化石记录(下图)来研究一下它的各种特征。

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【始祖鸟化石】
下图是按照它的化石进行复原后是这个样子。

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【始祖鸟艺术复原图】


首先,始祖鸟身上有非常丰满的羽毛,但找不到爬行动物特有的鳞片。

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【爬行动物(鳄鱼)鳞片与鸟类(鹰)羽毛的区别】


此外,始祖鸟的骨架是中空的,完全是鸟类的骨架。要知道鸟类的骨骼与其他动物有很大差别。

飞行鸟类的骨骼是中空的,充满空气。这样的结构不仅能让神经从骨头中间穿过,还能减轻鸟儿的体重,方便它们在空中飞行。

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【中空的鸟类骨头】


但陆上的恐龙这种爬行动物的骨骼是结实笨重。所以从骨骼上看,始祖鸟就是飞行的鸟类,而没有半点爬行动物的特征。

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【鸟类中空的骨头(左)与其他陆地动物骨头(右)的比较】


还有始祖鸟的爪子是栖鸟的爪子,能够抓着树枝在树上睡觉而不会掉下来的。这跟在陆地上跑来跑去的恐龙的爪子有很大的区别。

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【始祖鸟爪子与爬行动物(鳄鱼)爪子的对比】


不仅如此,现代科技让我们对始祖鸟的大脑结构有了新的认识。依靠现今的CT设备仪器,我们现在可以对始祖鸟化石的大脑(头颅)进行扫描。

下图是始祖鸟的大脑通过扫描后所呈现的样子。可以说,始祖鸟大脑与现代鸟非常相似,其中一个最明显的特征就是具有很发达的视觉皮层,这是飞鸟一个非常重要的特征。

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【始祖鸟的大脑与现代鸟类似,存在发达的视觉皮层】


由于飞鸟在高空高速飞行时,它必须具备非常敏锐的视觉能力,才能看到远处的一些小动物。在发现并对猎物准确定位后,飞鸟才能进行捕食。

要让飞鸟拥有这项能力,不仅它眼睛的视力要非常好,而且其视觉皮层要非常发达,才能快速分析眼睛所看到的视觉信息。

通过分析明显看出其大脑完全是一只飞行鸟类的大脑,因为陆地的爬行动物不会具备如此发达的视觉皮层。

针对始祖鸟的种种特征,《有脊椎古生物学期刊》的研究人员也表示:

“头胪上雀鸟特征显示始祖鸟是鸟类。而并非远古长有羽毛的非鸟类恐龙。”


爪子和牙齿是爬行动物的专属特征吗?

尽管如此,进化论者称始祖鸟身上有两个特征是爬行类动物所拥有的,以此认为它就是从爬行类动物(即恐龙)进化而来的。一个特征是翅膀上的爪子,另外一个是牙齿。

但问题是:有牙齿和翅膀上有爪子是不是属于爬行动物的专属特征呢?

我们现在知道有一些现代鸟的翅膀上也是有爪子的。比如说,南美洲有一种鸟叫做麝雉鸟,在它翅膀的中间就有爪子。

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【麝雉鸟及其爪子的局部放大图(右图)】


在它年幼的时候,能用这个爪子在树枝上爬来爬去。可以说,爪子其实并不是恐龙以及爬行动物的专利,一些现代鸟类也有,比如鸵鸟、食火鸡等

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【不少现代鸟类都有爪子】

第二个特征是牙齿。一直以来,科学家知道牙齿并不是划分动物的一个标准。下面我们看看这些例子:

好像两栖动物中的(成年)蚓螈有牙齿,而青蛙没有牙齿。

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【同是两栖动物,成年蚓螈(左图)有牙齿,青蛙(右图)没有牙齿】


爬行动物中的蛇有牙齿,而乌龟没有牙齿。

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【同是爬行动物,蛇(左图)有牙齿,乌龟(右图)没有牙齿】


哺乳动物中的狗有牙齿,而食蚁兽就没有牙齿。

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【同是哺乳动物,狗(左图)有牙齿,食蚁兽(右图)没有牙齿】


鸟类中的始祖鸟有牙齿,但知更鸟就没有牙齿。

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【同是鸟类,始祖鸟(左图)有牙齿,知更鸟(右图)没有牙齿】


我们明显看得出,牙齿真的不是动物种类划分的标准,也不是爬行动物的特征,而且近代更深入的研究发现,始祖鸟牙齿的结构和头骨的大小与恐龙差别很大,进一步否定了进化的故事。

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【始祖鸟与恐龙、鸡和鸽子的头骨对比,可以看出它们之间结构差异很大】


因此,始祖鸟也不过是一只已经绝种的飞鸟而已,完全没有恐龙的特征,根本不能算是中间过渡动物。


为什么错误的证据还被保留在书本中?

到这里,你心中是否有这样一个疑问:为什么完全具备飞行鸟类特征的始祖鸟还保留在课本,并展示在博物馆中,还向人们宣传说它就是爬行动物进化到鸟类过程中的过渡物种呢?

原因非常简单:化石记录中找不到任何进化过渡物种的证据

正如达尔文在《物种起源》第十章所承认的:

“地质学的确没有发现任何这种微细级进的连锁;这大概是反对自然选择学说(进化论)的最明显的和最重要的异议。”

为了让始终缺乏证据的进化论不至“Luo奔”那么难看,虽然始祖鸟这个“证据”漏洞百出,但在更好的证据出现前,进化论者只好拿它作为掩盖“最明显的和最重要的异议”的遮羞布。

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扩展阅读:

1. 鸟类进化论的破灭

2. 飞行:不可简化的复杂性
参考资料与图片出处

1. 《Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology》(1996年3月)
2.  网络图片.
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    2022-02-28 07:25:33

    Financial Advisors Were Grateful

    ging year, as financial advisors and their clients have had to navigate unprecedented issues. We asked several of our top advisors to share what had been most meaningful for them during 2020 and how it has shaped their professional outlook.

    “I'm incredibly grateful for a supportive team of colleagues, amazing clients, and the ability to continue to use creativity when it comes to inspiring people to make smarter choices with their money. The best moments with my clients have been sprinkled throughout the year . Many clients checked in on me as often as I've checked in on them throughout the pandemic. Some of my favorite moments have come when I've been able to educate about the benefits of donor-advised funds and how they can be leveraged in a family gifting strategy. There really have been bright moments throughout all of this. —Mary Beth Storjohann, Founder of Workable Wealth

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    “I'm most grateful for the health of our clients, team, and families during this challenging year. I'm also grateful for gaining confidence to get more personal and vulnerable with clients—something I've always struggled with. As a result , one of my favorite moments with clients was the overwhelming support for my three-year-old son who had to have emergency surgery during the first wave of the pandemic. There is no better profession in the world and I'm feeling extra thankful this year for being a part of it.” —Taylor Schulte, Founder & CEO of Define Financial
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