《原始社会的婚姻制度-----一夫一妻》
2022-01-10 10:09:41
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《原始社会的婚姻制度》   

   作者:@多识鸟兽草木

科伊桑人、俾格米人、安达曼人都是严格的一夫一妻制。

自大航海以来,所有已知的旧石器族群全都是一夫一妻制

基本可以肯定,恩格斯对于人类婚制的演变完全搞错了:

恩格斯认为【群婚制+母权】是旧石器时代的社会形式(他从摩尔根那学来的)

现在看来【群婚制】根本不存在,是恩格斯YY出来的;母权也不存在,旧石器族群大多是双边继嗣和两可居;北美的新石器部落倒是有母系,然而是母系+平权或母系+舅权

恩格斯认为【对偶婚制】是阶级社会初期的产物,是向一夫一妻的过渡

恰恰相反,【对偶婚制】就是人类最古老的婚姻制度。(恩格斯还强行区分了【对偶婚制】和【一夫一妻制】,现在看来这两者没有半毛钱区别,是描述角度的不同

这么算起来,在人类学这块儿,婚姻\家庭\社会形态,恩格斯的重大论断几乎全错:

1.【杂婚制→群婚制→对偶婚制→一夫一妻制】的理论是彻底错误的,一夫一妻是人类最古老的婚制,其他婚制产生不到9000年,都是农业时代才出现的

2.【母权→父权】的演变理论是错的,【父权制】是农业时代才从平权社会中产生的(但母系社会在新石器时代短暂存在过)

3.【原始→奴隶→封建→资本→社会】的“普适五段论”也是错的,但错不在马恩,而在苏联。
马恩自己说过,五段论是对西欧历史的总结和预言,不能用来分析中国、印度和俄罗斯。结果苏联强行把五段论装裱成普适理论,谁不赞同就把谁打为反动。

另外1和2,恩格斯其实是照抄了摩尔根的理论,然后用阶级叙事又解读了一遍。
虽然今天我们可以说,恩格斯在19世纪提出的这些大错特错。但是放在当时,摩尔根拍脑袋想出的理论还算新潮,时人也难以检验其正确性。

所以锅也不能完全扣给恩格斯,依然要扣给苏联:

一个超级大国抱残守缺,直到20世纪末,还守着19世纪的落后理论当法宝。明明是学术分歧,非说成政治分歧和路线斗争,搞得流毒至今
(我上学时课本还在教“石器时代母系社会”、“只知其母不知其父”、“周朝实行封建制度但是奴隶社会”这些精分的知识点....


      学者、历史学家、《剑桥中国史》作者之一黄仁宇先生认为,传统制度既输给文明,又输给野蛮。在社会多元化之前就形成,将儒家理论宗教化,目的在于保持稳定,而不是琐屑地解决问题,表面上是庞然大物,其实低能无效,不堪一击,这个系统使保持了长期的秩序与稳定,也使国家体制的弱点彻底暴露,它简单,效率低下,是无能、缺乏弹性又喜欢乱作为的政体,稍有外部压力就会轰然倒下。

     关于非洲黑人治理问题,哪怕你读懂了小说飘里斯嘉丽的很多发言,你也能理解。她听到说黑人白人平等,黑人完全可以独立自理,女主惊叹,这真是奇闻怪论。解放黑奴没事,让他们继续为过去农场或者别的白人农场打工,要求待遇不低于以前即可。让他们脱离农场去城市就是民生灾难,很多黑人完全不能谋生[泪]
   @远行客004
职场或者社会治理中过多的越级提拔/ 超常规提拔人才一定会出现很大的问题,混乱,管理绩效崩溃,不同群体矛盾激化都是必然。近看南非大规模提拔(选举) 黑人治理社会,远看教员时代大量提拔基础人员到中高层决策职位,都导致很多痛苦的民生民法悲剧。
曼德拉祸国殃民是无疑问的。


   尹亦声改:
 尝试新方法:把昨天的日常生活、当天想法分别记录下来写到纸上。标记上日期,塞进信封。这就是我的日记。我不需要厚厚的日记本。这就是我的时间轴。甚至年终总结都可以靠这个实现回顾。
    这个实施过程,发现了过去我所忽视的问题:我太依赖社媒记录想法了。因为记录携带纸笔终究是麻烦的。人是会偷懒的。一偷懒就选择在社媒上记录。但社媒是面向公众的,是开放的,甚至是审查的。为了隐藏隐私,为了规避审查,我就不得不改变我原先的直白想法。而最初的想法诞生就是由最初的情绪爆发。记录想法实际上是记录那一瞬的情绪。
修正文字输出,意味着修改记忆,修正想法。
      所以,正确做法是在纸上尽情书写自己想法,然后选择性发到社媒上。好处也有,在书写完后,情绪崩溃会好很多。倒是突然想起以前看高考素材提及的林肯总统从未寄出的信。虽然没考察过这是否真假。但这确实很好用。
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    2022-01-12 04:10:20

    Commingled Fund

    A commingled is when an investment manager accumulates money from several investors and combines it into one fund.

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    Commingled funds do not trade publicly and are not available for individual purchase; instead, they feature in institutional accounts such as pensions, retirement plans, and insurance policies.

    Understanding a Commingled Fund

    Commingling involves combining assets contributed by investors into a single fund or investment vehicle. Commingling is a primary feature of most investment funds. It may also be used to combine various types of contributions for various purposes

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    In many ways, commingled funds are similar to mutual funds. Both are professionally managed by one or more fund managers and invest in basic financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, or a combination of both.

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    While mutual funds have a prospectus, commingled funds have a Summary Plan Description (SPD). SPDs offer more detail, describing the fund's objectives, investment strategy, and background of its managers. The SPD document states the rights and obligations that the plan participants and beneficiaries can expect. Any participant in a commingled fund should read the SPD carefully.

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Commingled Funds

    The lower degree of regulation results in lower legal expenses and operating costs for a commingled fund. The lower the costs, the less drag on a fund's returns. If a commingled fund and a comparable mutual fund post the exact same gross performance, the commingled fund's net return would likely be better because its expenses were lower than the mutual fund's.


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    Illegal Commingling

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